Edgar W. See details. Buy It Now. Add to cart. Be the first to write a review About this product. About this product Product Information This volume follows on from The Lesser-Known Varieties of English Cambridge University Press, , by documenting a further range of varieties that have been overlooked and understudied. It explores varieties spoken by small groups of people in remote regions as diverse as Malta, Bermuda, the Netherlands Antilles, Brazil, the Cook Islands, and Palau.
The varieties explored are as much a part of the big picture as major varieties and it is the intention of this collection to spark further interest in the sociolinguistic documentation of minority Englishes in a postcolonial world. Language endangerment is a very real factor for the vast majority of lesser known varieties of English, and this book aims to highlight that documentation and archiving are key initial steps in revitalization and reclamation efforts. This book will be of interest to historians of English, and scholars in dialectology, language birth and death, language contact, typology, and variation and change.
Additional Product Features Dewey Edition. Show More Show Less. No ratings or reviews yet. The basic cline of contact effects, from lexical loans in occasional encounters via some phonological and structural transfer in second-language acquisition SLA to massive restructuring in intense contact settings, is largely uncontroversial. The status of the outcomes of strong contact, and of creoles as independent languages or not, is disputed, however.
Early creolist theory claimed creoles to be new, independent languages; Thomason and Kaufman , in a classic book, even argued that they are genetically totally unrelated to their lexifier languages. This is counterintuitive, however, given the high amount of similarities — for example, Schneider — shows how a Jamaican Creole text, despite many distinct features, remains basically comprehensible to English speakers. Mufwene holds that creoles are dialects of their lexifier languages and not independent languages, though many creolists are not ready to accept this position.
Clearly they share properties with creoles and consequently, Schneider also includes Jamaican and Barbadian speech forms in a book on Postcolonial Englishes. At the lower end of the cline, it has been questioned e.
Further Studies in the Lesser-Known Varieties of English - Google книги
I am convinced it is: these are important sub-types, and there are differences between both as to the demographic proportion of British-descendant native speakers of English, the amount and nature of the indigenous-language input into the new dialect, etc. Ultimately, this argument is important for defining the scope of English Language Studies — which, it is argued here, has to encompass all the contact varieties referred to here as well. It has been applied to new contexts e. Cyprus, Buschfeld ; Japan, Ike ; Sri Lanka, Bernaisch ; the Netherlands, Edwards ; and many others , widely discussed, mostly accepted, but also modified and questioned with respect to some details and postulates cf.
Buschfeld et al. Schneider surveys many reactions and applications, and further contributions to the assessment process have been brought forward, both supportive and more sceptical ones.
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While his overall conclusion sounds rather critical, a closer look at his data reveals that in fact many of the basic predictions of the model are largely confirmed; it is only details of the dating of phases that appear to be in need of modification. A controversial point concerns the role of identity in variety formation.
It features prominently in the Dynamic Model Schneider 26—28 and passim : as was stated above, identity-based delimitations between social groups are considered decisive for the patterns of communicative interactions and thus ultimately for the growth of group-specific dialect distinctions. The issue was explicitly debated by several contributors in a journal issue Trudgill et al.
Van Rooy , weighing both alternatives, also suggests that the variability of the input deserves greater attention. Seidlhofer ; Schneider ; Pitzl and Osimk-Teasdale World Englishes and ELF usage show structural similarities, since both are indirectly products of SLA, and of intercultural interactions and often globalization. However, while World Englishes are usually conceptualized as reasonably stable varieties, ELF is not, and is viewed as an interaction type instead.
Not surprisingly, conflicting attitudes towards English prevail in postcolonial societies. Some linguists e. In a similar vein, Pennycook argues that colonialism has permeated the cultures and discourses of colonial and colonized nations, with effects still visible, so that in such countries English can never be seen as a neutral vehicle of communication. These are minority views held by some academics, however. For example, an attempt of the post-handover Hong Kong government to reduce the number of English-medium schools met with serious resistance Schneider Many speakers view that differently, however: for many of them these young and also mixed varieties have a positive indexicality value, signalling new, intercultural orientations.
In practice, nations need to decide on their language policies, and for many young nations in Asia and Africa postcolonial or not this implies the need to define the internal status of English. Many options and alternatives are available. The model case of fully embracing English is Singapore — a country basically run in English, moving towards first-language status for the majority of the population, and certainly with English being the uniting band for all.
Some former colonies, like Tanzania and Malaysia, have decided to replace English with new national languages — and have been struggling to implement this policy since then, with the pendulum swinging back and forth between promoting and curtailing English. And finally, of course all of this has consequences for strategies of teaching English in many countries. Should English be implemented as early as possible, in elementary education? Should secondary or higher education be conducted in English? Should native speakers be hired as teachers?
Kachru ; Widdowson ; it is the world language today; it comes in a multitude of varieties, and it is used in an enormously wide range of countries and contexts.
International English: A guide to the varieties of Standard English
Given that the English language, in any of its facets and usage conditions, is now heard and used on all continents and in so many different forms and realizations, English Language Studies as a discipline is no longer conceivable without a perspective on World Englishes. Hence, colonialism and postcolonial developments have transformed the nature of the language in fundamental ways, and for good.
Colonialism laid the foundations for this state of affairs, transmitted English to all corners of the earth and caused it to be transformed in this process. After decolonization it seamlessly found successors — forces which have continued to push, strengthen and disseminate English see Buschfeld and Kautzsch , notably globalization and cyberspace. Colonialism as a historical process is over, but its effects have been transformed and are here to stay. The idea of English The relevance of English la Literacy in English Teaching English as an Addi We are using cookies to provide statistics that help us give you the best experience of our site.
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Metrics Views English and colonialism Authored by: Edgar W. Introduction Between the sixteenth and twentieth centuries European powers established colonies, exerting political power and control over foreign territories, driven by economic or other motives and often accompanied by large-scale settlement movements. The historical basis: European and British colonialism Some earlier precursors like the Vikings notwithstanding, European colonialism started in the late Middle Ages, with Portuguese and Spanish explorers navigating around Africa or crossing the Atlantic in search of a sea route to the Far East.
Belich 22—23 This plainly political assessment overstates the case; it is counterbalanced by the much longer period of cultural influence and contact, but clearly there is a need to carefully weigh the intensity of British impact in any given context. The impact on English es : linguistic diffusion and transformation in colonization English transported: extraterritorial diffusion Colonists of course took their language with them, and so around the globe we now find European languages and English especially in use, relocated and typically transformed.
Social outcomes: attitudes and policies Not surprisingly, conflicting attitudes towards English prevail in postcolonial societies. Belich, J. Darwin, J. Cambridge: Cambridge University Project. Schneider, E.
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Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. This is the classic scholarly study on Postcolonial Englishes, with an extensive theoretical section and practical applications of the Dynamic Model to many countries. An Introduction.